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Adolescence is a developmental period of accelerating physical, psychological, social! Many of the adverse health consequences experienced by adolescents are, to a large extent, the result of their risk behaviors. Many adolescents today, and perhaps an increasing number in the future, are at risk for death, disease, and other adverse health outcomes that are not primarily biomedical in origin. In general, there has been a marked change in the causes of morbidity and mortality among adolescents.
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- Handbook of Adolescent Health Risk Behavior.
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Handbook of Adolescent Health Risk Behavior | Ralph J. DiClemente | Springer
DiClemente, William B. Hansen, and Lynn E. Ponton, Plenum Press, New York in ISBN: Each chapter follows a similar template; that is, corresponding authors describe the scope of the problem, the epidemiology associated with a particular risk behavior, assess prevention strategies, and describe and evaluate treatment modalities. The authors of different chapters examines how adolescence rights and their behaviour work and help to shape our moral nature as human beings and further gave us clear directions for future research.
Drawing references from more over sources this book provides diverse multidisciplinary materials on adolescence health risk behaviour; present before us a whole new perspective about adolescence behaviour.
Moreover it is with the publishing of this book that a discipline which was ignored in the global clinical debates emerged as a noteworthy area of study. Book Review of Handbook of Adolescent Health Risk Behavior 3 agreement with editors much of what has written especially on the western prejudices and their outlook on adolescence health behaviour. Core Concepts in Book Adolescence is a developmental period of accelerating physical, psychological, social, cultural, and cognitive development, often characterized by confronting and surmounting a myriad of challenges and establishing a sense of self-identity and autonomy.
It is also, unfortunately, a period fraught with many threats to the health and well-being of adolescents and with substantial consequent impairment and disability. Clearly, the cost to adolescents and society, in general, is staggering, in terms of disease, premature mortality, wasted human potential and economic expenditures for health care, rehabilitation, and incarceration in juvenile detention facilities. Adolescents face continued and perhaps even greater challenges to avoid behaviors that rob them of the opportunity to be healthy, fulfilled, and productive individuals.
Poor health, poverty, lack of health insurance, and limited access to services are inter-correlated for adolescents.
Adolescent Health: Understanding and Preventing Risk Behaviors
Males are four times more likely to die from violence than their female peers. Risk-taking behaviors are the most serious threats to adolescent health and wellbeing. Negative potential consequences of these behaviors include unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, severe disability, and death. Linkage of risk-taking behaviors as a conceptual entity comes from three sources. First, risk- taking behaviors generally display a developmental trajectory. For example, rates of sexual activity, substance use, reckless vehicle use, and delinquency have been found to increase with increasing age during adolescence.
Second, these behaviors have been found to covary in predictable ways. These results suggest that a number of factors that might have affected outcomes were equivalent across intervention conditions, and do not pose major threats to the internal validity of the present study. The intervention package included the following components, elaborated in Table 3. Each year, as the panel moved through the elementary grades, teachers in intervention classrooms received 5 days of in-service training in a package of instructional methods 33 with 3 major components: proactive classroom management, 34 interactive teaching, 35 and cooperative learning.
Teachers of control students did not receive training in instructional or classroom management skills from the project. However, both intervention and control teachers were observed by evaluators, uninformed as to intervention condition of the classrooms they observed. Observations lasted for 50 minutes on 2 different days in the fall and spring each year using the interactive teaching map to document the use of the targeted teaching strategies in all conditions. First-grade teachers of the full intervention group also received instruction in the use of a cognitive and social skills training curriculum, interpersonal cognitive problem solving, 39 , 40 which teaches skills to children to think through and use alternative solutions to problems with peers.
This curriculum developed children's skills for involvement in cooperative learning groups and other social activities without resorting to aggressive or other problem behaviors. In addition, when students in both intervention conditions were in grade 6, they received 4 hours of training from project staff in skills to recognize and resist social influences to engage in problem behaviors, and to generate and suggest positive alternatives to stay out of trouble while keeping friends.
Parent training classes appropriate to the developmental level of the children were offered on a voluntary basis to parents or adult caregivers of children. Parents of children in the full intervention condition were offered training in child behavior management skills when their children were in the first and second grades through a 7-session curriculum called "Catch 'Em Being Good," 42 which is grounded in the work of Patterson. When their children were in grades 5 and 6, parents of children in both the full and the late intervention conditions were offered a 5-session curriculum, "Preparing for the Drug Free Years," 44 to strengthen their skills to reduce their children's risks for drug use.
Professional multiethnic project staff provided parenting workshops in collaboration with participating schools and parent councils.
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Forty-six percent of parents who attended parenting classes were from low-income families. Data were collected from group-administered questionnaires completed by children in the fall of just after entering fifth grade, and from Seattle School District records. Outcome data were collected through individually administered interviews conducted in the spring of Self-reported outcomes were supplemented with data on delinquency charges in the King County Juvenile Court, and California Achievement Test results, grade point averages, and school disciplinary action reports through age 17 years from the Seattle School District.
Measures used to assess constructs addressed by the intervention are listed in Table 4. The scales, items, and reliabilities are available from one of us [J. Attrition analyses shown in Table 1 indicate that effects reported below are not likely to be an artifact of differential attrition from conditions. Forty-five participants from the original sample were not interviewed at age 18 years. As shown in Table 1 , they did not differ significantly from those remaining in the study with respect to gender, ethnicity, or poverty.
Also, as shown in Table 1 , attrition was unrelated to intervention condition. The participants missing at follow-up 14 from the control, 24 from the late, and 7 from the full intervention groups were randomly distributed among the 3 intervention conditions. Moreover, after accounting for the attrition of the 45 participants, the overall distribution of the sample with respect to gender, socioeconomic status, or race was unrelated to intervention condition. In an additional test of attrition effects, the interaction of intervention condition with attrition was assessed with respect to each outcome variable reported in Table 3 by examining attrition-by-condition interaction effects on corresponding measures at fifth-grade entry.
An interaction of attrition and condition would indicate possible bias introduced by differential attrition by condition. Effects on fifth-grade entry measures of school bonding, self-reported grades, California Achievement Test scores, school misbehavior, fighting, delinquency, arrests, and substance use were estimated.
No significant interaction of intervention condition control vs full with the attrition variable was found for effects on related fifth-grade measures, reinforcing the internal validity of the study with respect to all comparisons of the full intervention and control groups. Observed outcomes are unlikely to have been an artifact of differential attrition across conditions. Continuous measures were analyzed by comparing means across the 3 conditions using analysis of variance procedures.