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Advanced GIS Using ESRI ArcGIS 9.3 Arc ToolBox 7 (Linear Referencing - Mobile)
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To avoid this, the composite set of road segments that and southbound. When referenced.
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For example, the pavement type of a street may often a street has no directional prefix, the entire street becomes a route. For example, the two sets of segments that make up Coit Road Ideally, all the segments that make up that road should constitute were actually split into four separate routes according to the fol- a single route, so that one event can define the pavement type for lowing route-name attribute: NB N Coit Rd, SB N Coit Rd, NB that route.
This necessitates an evalu- ation of the trade-off between the level of detail that one wants to reference against and the concomitant increase in the number and segmentation of routes. Determining Measures Once the route structure is determined, the third step in the linear referencing process is to determine measures along those routes. There are three primary considerations when setting measures along routes: 1 the unit of measure that is most appropriate, 2 the source for the measure values, and 3 the direction of increasing measure values.
The most appropriate unit for measures along routes is a function of the application for which the linearly referenced features will be employed. Because unit conversions are a commonplace function in GIS software, changes in units require only that both the measures along the routes and the measure information associated with the event data remain consistent. Figure 6. Measures increasing from the focal point However, if more than one unit is required for the same routes, this may require that a second set of routes be maintained.
For and it should be logically consistent with both the topological some applications, the measure along a feature may be given as network design and the route structure determined in step two a percentage of the distance along the feature rather than as an of the process. For example, consider an application concerned absolute distance. Because activities along the river a subject of substantial debate.
Historically, data collected in the network are likely to be associated with the flow of the river, the field and stored in databases external to the GIS were considered measures along the routes should be consistently associated with substantially higher in quality in terms of spatial accuracy than either the upstream or the downstream direction of the river the digital spatial data employed by the GIS. This fact led linear network.
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Similarly, if routes are designed to conform to the direc- referencing researchers to develop well-defined objects such as an- tion of travel along a street network, then increasing measures chor points and anchor sections in the NCHRP model that may most appropriately conform to those directions. However, were based on the well-defined location of points and segments if applications associated with addresses are of primary interest, collected in the field.
Measures were computed along the network then the direction of increasing measures should likely conform based on their distances from these objects. These measures could to increasing address ranges. Today, the digital data landscape has completely changed in data is accepted as the datum and the geometric lengths of the this respect. The data maintained in GIS departments is almost segments are accepted as sufficiently accurate for most city needs. Additionally, of measure. For Richardson, route measures were designed to consortia of municipalities and nongovernmental organizations increase in accordance with the addressing scheme for the city.
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There is no need historic downtown section shown in Figure 6. This is the same to maintain a separate set of features from which measures are point used as the dividing point for routes. Once again, the GIS data is the datum. The third consideration when determining measure values is the direction of increase of those values.
Once again this depends Create Events on the previous steps in the linear referencing process. Generally When the first three steps of the linear referencing process have speaking, the direction of increase should be consistent with the been completed, a set of routes have been built from the underly- needs of the application chosen in the first step of the process, ing network for the chosen application.
Pavement types represented as linear events Figure 8. Cartographic display of related events with measure information based on application needs and topo- such a way that they can logically be associated with the routes logical structure. The next step in the process is the collection of determined in the second step of the process. For many In the case of Richardson, the initial objective for implement- users, this step is what first comes to mind when considering linear ing linear referencing was to more accurately represent surface referencing.
However, without having completed the first three pavement type.