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Medicine Neurology. Current Clinical Neurology Free Preview. Buy eBook. Buy Hardcover. Buy Softcover. FAQ Policy. About this book The recent explosion of new information about the pathology, pathophysiology, clinical classification, imaging, and treatment of multiple sclerosis MS has dramatically opened the way to a deeper understanding of the disease and a more effective therapeutic landscape for patients.

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Multiple sclerosis (MS) - Better Health Channel

Post-Conference Perspectives. Institute for Value-Based Medicine News. Multiple Sclerosis Update. Currently Reading. Patients with multiple sclerosis MS , a disease of the central nervous system that disrupts signals within the brain and also the signals between the brain and body, will likely experience symptoms that may negatively impact their quality of life QOL. Due to the complexity of MS and its disease burden, multidisciplinary management that combines pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic strategies with patient education is necessary.

Diagnosing relapses of MS in clinical practice can be difficult due to the multiple subtypes of MS, variations of symptomatology, and pseudo-relapses.

What Is the Appropriate Treatment Strategy for MS Breakthrough Disease?

Managing relapses also presents its own set of challenges, for example, evaluating if treatment is appropriate and determining which agent would be most effective for a patient if treatment is recommended. Patient education is essential for achieving optimal outcomes for patients with MS and improving patient QOL, and should increase awareness of: 1 the disease itself and its progression; 2 the signs and symptoms of MS; 3 current treatment strategies and plan of care; 4 the recognition and management of relapses; 5 the value of treatment adherence and impact of nonadherence; and 6 hope for the future.

The management of active MS may be further complicated by the complex variety of pharmacotherapeutic options, and in some instances, by having to switch between agents and drug classes. Signs and symptoms of MS vary widely and depend on the amount of nerve damage and which nerves are affected. Some people with severe MS may lose the ability to walk independently or at all, while others may experience long periods of remission without any new symptoms.


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There's no cure for multiple sclerosis. However, treatments can help speed recovery from attacks, modify the course of the disease and manage symptoms.

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In multiple sclerosis, the protective coating on nerve fibers myelin in the central nervous system becomes detached and eventually destroyed. This creates a lesion that may cause numbness, pain or tingling in parts of the body.

Multiple sclerosis signs and symptoms may differ greatly from person to person and over the course of the disease depending on the location of affected nerve fibers. Symptoms often affect movement, such as:. Most people with MS have a relapsing-remitting disease course. They experience periods of new symptoms or relapses that develop over days or weeks and usually improve partially or completely.

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These relapses are followed by quiet periods of disease remission that can last months or even years. Small increases in body temperature can temporarily worsen signs and symptoms of MS , but these aren't considered disease relapses. About 60 to 70 percent of people with relapsing-remitting MS eventually develop a steady progression of symptoms, with or without periods of remission, known as secondary-progressive MS.

The worsening of symptoms usually includes problems with mobility and gait. The rate of disease progression varies greatly among people with secondary-progressive MS. Some people with MS experience a gradual onset and steady progression of signs and symptoms without any relapses. This is known as primary-progressive MS. The cause of multiple sclerosis is unknown. It's considered an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system attacks its own tissues.

In the case of MS , this immune system malfunction destroys the fatty substance that coats and protects nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord myelin.

Multiple sclerosis - causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Myelin can be compared to the insulation coating on electrical wires. When the protective myelin is damaged and nerve fiber is exposed, the messages that travel along that nerve may be slowed or blocked. The nerve may also become damaged itself. It isn't clear why MS develops in some people and not others.

A combination of genetics and environmental factors appears to be responsible. Multiple sclerosis care at Mayo Clinic. Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products.

Multiple Sclerosis

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This content does not have an Arabic version. Multiple sclerosis In multiple sclerosis, the protective coating on nerve fibers myelin is damaged and may eventually be destroyed. Myelin damage and the nervous system In multiple sclerosis, the protective coating on nerve fibers myelin in the central nervous system becomes detached and eventually destroyed.

Multiple sclerosis: Can it cause seizures? Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic. Managing depression in MS. Share on: Facebook Twitter. References What is multiple sclerosis?